http://kineticorp.com Forensic Engineering and Visualization Tue, 21 May 2019 19:28:24 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.1.1 http://kineticorp.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/cropped-favicon-32x32.jpg http://kineticorp.com 32 32 SAE International World Congress 2019 – Kineticorp Recognition http://kineticorp.com/sae-international/ Fri, 17 May 2019 20:41:34 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=101616 At SAE International (World Congress 2019) we presented 10 of the 11 papers we published through SAE International this year! The reason Kineticorp emphasizes research isn’t for the accolades or CV credentials that these publications provide; it’s the first-hand knowledge that comes with doing the research.  That knowledge gives us… read more →

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At SAE International (World Congress 2019) we presented 10 of the 11 papers we published through SAE International this year! The reason Kineticorp emphasizes research isn’t for the accolades or CV credentials that these publications provide; it’s the first-hand knowledge that comes with doing the research.  That knowledge gives us the ability to answer intricate questions on cases.  It’s the foundation for our findings and understanding of complex questions. Here is a list of this year’s SAE publication subjects.

o Heavy Truck Acceleration
o Low Severity Override
o Yawing Tire Tread Detachment
o 3-Wheeled Motorcycles
o Drone Scene Scanning
o Video Tracking of Left-Turning Vehicle Acceleration
o Nighttime Visibility
o AR & Reverse Camera Projection
o Site Reconstruction Using USGS, LiDAR, and Photogrammetry
o EDRs: Tread Separation/High Speed Yaw
o EDRs: Oblique & Offset Crashes

Featured Authors: William Neale, Nathan A. Rose, William Bortles, Gray Beauchamp, M.S., P.E., David Danaher, P.E., Neal Carter, Jim Marr, Toby Terpstra, David Allen Pentecost M.S., P.E., Nathan McKelvey, Steven Beier, Drew Donaldson, Sean McDonough, Daniel Koch, George S. Rayburn, Ryan Hostetle

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SAE WCX 2019 – Nighttime Visibility in Varying Moonlight Conditions http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-nighttime-visibility-in-varying-moonlight-conditions/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:49:24 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=35263 Title: Event Data Recorder Performance during High Speed Yaw Testing Subsequent to a Simulated Tire Tread Separation Event Authors: William Neale, James Marr, and Nathan McKelvey Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential… read more →

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Title: Event Data Recorder Performance during High Speed Yaw Testing Subsequent to a Simulated Tire Tread Separation Event

Authors: William Neale, James Marr, and Nathan McKelvey

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

When the visibility of an object or person in the roadway from a driver’s perspective is an issue, the potential effect of moonlight is sometimes questioned. To assess this potential effect, methods typically used to quantify visibility were performed during conditions with no moon and with a full moon. In the full moon condition, measurements were collected from initial moon rise until the moon reached peak azimuth. Baseline ambient light measurements of illumination at the test surface were measured in both no moon and full moon scenarios. Additionally, a vehicle with activated low beam headlamps was positioned in the testing area and the change in illumination at two locations forward of the vehicle was recorded at thirty-minute intervals as the moon rose to the highest position in the sky. Also, two separate luminance readings were recorded during the test intervals, one location 75 feet in front and to the left of the vehicle, and another 150 feet forward of the vehicle. These luminance readings yielding the change in reflected light attributable to the moon. In addition to the quantitative measurement of light contributed by the moon, documentation to the change in visibility of objects and pedestrians located on the roadway were documented through photographs. Calibrated nighttime photographs were taken from the driver’s perspective inside the vehicle with low beam headlamps activated. The photographs were analyzed after testing to determine how the light intensity of the pixels in the photographs changed at each thirty-minute interval due to the additional light contribution from the moon. The results of this testing indicate that the quantifiable change in visibility distance attributable to added moonlight was negligible, and in real-world driving situations, the effect of additional illumination from a full moon would be unlikely to affect the detection of an object or pedestrian in or near the travel lane of the roadway.

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SAE WCX 2019 – Event Data Recorder Performance During High Speed Yaw Testing http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-event-data-recorder-performance-during-high-speed-yaw-testing/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:45:25 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=34510 Title: Event Data Recorder Performance during High Speed Yaw Testing Subsequent to a Simulated Tire Tread Separation Event Authors: William Bortles, Daniel Koch, Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost, and George Rayburn Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT This paper presents event data from the Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM) of a 2004 Chevrolet… read more →

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Title: Event Data Recorder Performance during High Speed Yaw Testing Subsequent to a Simulated Tire Tread Separation Event

Authors: William Bortles, Daniel Koch, Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost, and George Rayburn

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents event data from the Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM) of a 2004 Chevrolet Malibu during high speed yaw testing. Yaw tests were performed using tires that were intact and tires that had the tread removed. The tires that had the tread removed were placed at various wheel positions on the vehicle (e.g. leading side – front, leading side -rear, trailing side – rear). This testing simulates the loss of control phase subsequent to a tread separation. Speeds up to 117 km/h (72.9 mph) were achieved. A simple electro-mechanical device was incorporated to the dynamic testing to simulate a low-severity non-deployment event that triggered the recording of pre-crash data by the SDM. The SDM data from the tests was imaged and compared to reference data from vehicle-mounted instrumentation recording wheel speed, steering angle, measured vehicle sideslip angle and GPS calculated over the ground speed. This paper examines the dynamic effect of high sideslip angles and changes to tire rolling radius, as a result of a tread separation, as it pertains to the accuracy of EDR reported vehicle speed.

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SAE WCX 2019 – High Severity Frontal Oblique Offset Crash Tests http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-high-severity-frontal-oblique-offset-crash-tests/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:37:08 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=33847 Title: Performance of Event Data Recorders Found in Toyota Airbag Control Modules in High Severity Frontal Oblique Offset Crash Tests Authors: William Bortles, and Ryan Hostetler Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of Event Data Recorders (EDRs) found in the Airbag Control Modules… read more →

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Title: Performance of Event Data Recorders Found in Toyota Airbag Control Modules in High Severity Frontal Oblique Offset Crash Tests

Authors: William Bortles, and Ryan Hostetler

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the performance of Event Data Recorders (EDRs) found in the Airbag Control Modules (ACMs), as tested in support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s Frontal Oblique Offset Program. Previous studies have examined EDR performance in high severity full-frontal barrier crash tests and moving deformable barrier side impact tests. This paper presents data from a high severity oblique frontal impact test in which the vehicle was struck by a moving deformable barrier. This paper examines the results of EDR data downloaded from two 2015 model year Toyota Highlanders, and the results of EDR reported change in velocity (delta-v), to vehicle mounted accelerometers and reference instrumentation. This paper will analyze EDR performance in reporting:

  • Seatbelt buckle status,
  • Occupant Size Classification, Front Passenger,
  • Airbag and seatbelt pretensioner deployment time(s),
  • Longitudinal delta-v, and
  • Lateral acceleration/crash pulse.

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Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks http://kineticorp.com/low-speed-override-passenger-vehicles-heavy-trucks/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:26:23 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=33174 Title: Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks Authors: David Danaher, William Neale, Sean McDonough, and Drew Donaldson Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT In low speed collisions (under 15 mph) that involve a heavy truck impacting the rear of a passenger vehicle, it is likely that the front bumper… read more →

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Title: Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks

Authors: David Danaher, William Neale, Sean McDonough, and Drew Donaldson

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

In low speed collisions (under 15 mph) that involve a heavy truck impacting the rear of a passenger vehicle, it is likely that the front bumper of the heavy truck will override the rear bumper beam of the passenger vehicle, creating an override/underride impact configuration. There is limited data available for study when attempting to quantify vehicle damage and crash dynamics in low-speed override/underride impacts. Low speed impact tests were conducted to provide new data for passenger vehicle dynamics and damage assessment for low speed override/underride rear impacts to passenger vehicles. Three tests were conducted, with a tractor-trailer impacting three different passenger vehicles at 5 mph and 10 mph. This paper presents data from these three tests in order to expand the available data set for low speed override/underride collisions.

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SAE WCX 2019 – Image Based Scanning Techniques for Mapping Accident Sites http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-image-based-scanning-techniques-mapping-accident-sites/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:18:29 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=32421 Title:  An Optimization of Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) Image Based Scanning Techniques for Mapping Accident Sites Authors: Neal Carter, Alireza Hashemian, and Nathan Mckelvey Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT Small unmanned aerial systems have gained prominence in their use as tools for mapping the 3-dimensional characteristics of accident sites. Typically,… read more →

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Title:  An Optimization of Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) Image Based Scanning Techniques for Mapping Accident Sites

Authors: Neal Carter, Alireza Hashemian, and Nathan Mckelvey

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

Small unmanned aerial systems have gained prominence in their use as tools for mapping the 3-dimensional characteristics of accident sites. Typically, the process of mapping an accident site involves taking a series of overlapping, high resolution photographs of the site, and using photogrammetric software to create a point cloud or mesh of the site. This process, known as image-based scanning, is explored and analyzed in this paper. A mock accident site was created that included a stopped vehicle, a bicycle, and a ladder. These objects represent items commonly found at accident sites. The accident site was then documented with several different unmanned aerial vehicles at differing altitudes, with differing flight patterns, and with different flight control software. The photographs taken with the unmanned aerial vehicles were then processed with photogrammetry software using different methods to scale and align the point clouds. The point cloud data produced with different vehicle / flight pattern / altitude combinations was then quantitatively compared to terrestrial LiDAR scan data. The results are presented here, as well as recommendations based on equipment and desired output.

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SAE WCX 2019 – The Application of Augmented Reality to Reverse Camera Projection http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-application-augmented-reality-reverse-camera-projection/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 21:06:02 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=31718 Title: The Application of Augmented Reality to Reverse Camera Projection Authors: Toby Terpstra, Steven Beier, and William Neale Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT In 1980, research by Thebert introduced the use of photography equipment and transparencies for onsite reverse camera projection photogrammetry [1]. This method involved taking a film photograph through… read more →

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Title: The Application of Augmented Reality to Reverse Camera Projection

Authors: Toby Terpstra, Steven Beier, and William Neale

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

In 1980, research by Thebert introduced the use of photography equipment and transparencies for onsite reverse camera projection photogrammetry [1]. This method involved taking a film photograph through the development process and creating a reduced size transparency to insert into the cameras viewfinder. The photographer was then able to see both the image contained on the transparency, as well as the actual scene directly through the cameras viewfinder. By properly matching the physical orientation and positioning of the camera it was possible to visually align the image on the image on the transparency to the physical world as viewed through the camera. The result was a solution for where the original camera would have been located when the photograph was taken. With the original camera reverse-located, any evidence in the transparency that is no longer present at the site could then be replaced to match the evidences location in the transparency. Reverse camera projection is useful for both determining the location of historical evidence, where it is no longer physically in existence, as well as for directing the investigator to evidence still at the site that may otherwise have been overlooked during a site inspection. With the advent of augmented reality, an entirely digital process of this technique is now possible. This paper both presents a digital methodology and provides reference to a publicly available, augmented reality application developed specifically for this process by the authors. The accuracy of the application and methodology is then demonstrated through field studies with reported results.

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SAE WCX 2019 – Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-reconstruction-3d-accident-sites-using-usgs-lidar/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 20:08:30 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=30795 Title: Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry Authors: Toby Terpstra, Jordan Dickinson, Alireza Hashemian, and Stephen Fenton Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT The accident reconstruction community has previously relied upon photographs and site visits to recreate a scene. This method is difficult in instances where… read more →

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Title: Reconstruction of 3D Accident Sites Using USGS LiDAR, Aerial Images, and Photogrammetry

Authors: Toby Terpstra, Jordan Dickinson, Alireza Hashemian, and Stephen Fenton

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

The accident reconstruction community has previously relied upon photographs and site visits to recreate a scene. This method is difficult in instances where the site has changed or is not accessible. In 2017 the United States Geological Survey (USGS) released historical 3D point clouds (LiDAR) allowing for access to digital 3D data without visiting the site. This offers many unique benefits to the reconstruction community including: safety, budget, time, and historical preservation.  This paper presents a methodology for collecting this data and using it in conjunction with aerial imagery, and camera matching photogrammetry to create 3D computer models of the scene without a site visit. To determine accuracies achievable using this method, evidence locations solved for using only USGS LiDAR, aerial images and scene photographs (representative of emergency personnel photographs) were compared with known locations documented using total station survey equipment and ground-based 3D laser scanning.  The data collected from three different site locations was analyzed, and camera matching photogrammetry was performed independently by 5 different individuals to locate evidence. On average, the resulting evidence for all three test sites was found to be within 3.0 inches (8cm) of known evidence locations with a standard deviation of 1.7 inches (4cm). To further evaluate the quality of the USGS LiDAR, a comparative point cloud analysis of the roadway surfaces was performed.  On average, 85% of the USGS LiDAR points were found to be within .5 inches of the ground-based 3D scanning points.

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SAE WCX 2019 – Lateral and Tangential Accelerations of Left Turning Vehicles http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-lateral-tangential-accelerations-left-turning-vehicles/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 19:57:34 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=29902 Title: Lateral and Tangential Accelerations of Left Turning Vehicles from Naturalistic Observations Authors: Neal Carter, Steven Beier, and Rheana Cordero  Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT When reconstructing collisions involving left turning vehicles at intersections, accident reconstructionists are often required to determine the relative timing and spacing between two vehicles involved in… read more →

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Title: Lateral and Tangential Accelerations of Left Turning Vehicles from Naturalistic Observations

Authors: Neal Carter, Steven Beier, and Rheana Cordero 

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

When reconstructing collisions involving left turning vehicles at intersections, accident reconstructionists are often required to determine the relative timing and spacing between two vehicles involved in such a collision. This time-space analysis frequently involves determining or prescribing a path and acceleration profile for the left turning vehicle. Although numerous studies have examined the straight-line acceleration of vehicles, only two studies have presented the tangential and lateral acceleration of left turning vehicles. This paper expands on the results of those limited studies and presents a methodology to automatically detect and track vehicles in a video file. The authors made observations of left turning vehicles at three intersections. Each intersection incorporated permissive green turn phases for left turning vehicles. The authors recorded video of left turning vehicles at each intersection from a small unmanned aerial system (sUAS), and that video was analyzed with a convolutional neural network designed to detect vehicles. The detected vehicles were then tracked over time and the results were analyzed. A total of 86 left turning vehicles were analyzed.  In 23 of the observed turns, an oncoming vehicle was also visible in the video. The spatial relationship between the oncoming vehicles and the left turning vehicles was analyzed and the relationship between gap acceptance and acceleration is presented. Accident reconstructionists and traffic engineers can use this data to prescribe realistic values or ranges to accelerations of left-turning vehicles.

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SAE WCX 2019 – Speed Analysis of Yawing Passenger Vehicles Following a Tire Tread Detachment http://kineticorp.com/sae-wcx-2019-speed-analysis-yawing-passenger-vehicles/ Tue, 09 Apr 2019 19:23:37 +0000 http://kineticorp.com/?p=28839 Title: Speed Analysis of Yawing Passenger Vehicles Following a Tire Tread Detachment Authors: Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost, Daniel Koch, and William Bortles Published by: SAE International  ABSTRACT This paper presents yaw testing of vehicles with tread removed from tires at various locations. A 2004 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2003 Ford Expedition… read more →

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Title: Speed Analysis of Yawing Passenger Vehicles Following a Tire Tread Detachment

Authors: Gray Beauchamp, David Pentecost, Daniel Koch, and William Bortles

Published by: SAE International 

ABSTRACT

This paper presents yaw testing of vehicles with tread removed from tires at various locations. A 2004 Chevrolet Malibu and a 2003 Ford Expedition were included in the test series. The vehicles were accelerated up to speed and a large steering input was made to induce yaw. Speed at the beginning of the tire mark evidence varied between 33 mph and 73 mph. Both vehicles were instrumented to record over the ground speed, steering angle, yaw angle and in some tests, wheel speeds. The tire marks on the roadway were surveyed and photographed. The Critical Speed Formula has long been used by accident reconstructionists for estimating a vehicle’s speed at the beginning of yaw tire marks. The method has been validated by previous researchers to calculate the speed of a vehicle with four intact tires. This research extends the Critical Speed Formula to include yawing vehicles following a tread detachment event. The Critical Speed Formula was found to produce results of acceptable and known accuracy, provided the appropriate inputs are used for the given situation and several guidelines are observed. The inputs and guidelines for the use of the Critical Speed Formula for these tread detachment scenarios are discussed. For all tests analyzed, the tire mark evidence was documented with survey equipment, photographs and drone footage. In the past, it may have been necessary to take tire mark radius measurements in the field for use in the Critical Speed Formula. However, with the advent of modern documentation techniques, radius measurements can be taken from a scaled scene diagram and acceptable accuracy in the speed calculations can be achieved.

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